palo-santo = Tropical tree somewhat similar in shape to an oak tree. In the old days natives were punished -with cause or without cause- by being tyied around to one of these trees so they would be at the mercy of giant ants that commonly swarm near these trees.
Yungas = Yungas is the Bolivian upper upper rainforest region located in the Eastern slopes of the Andes.
Churuhuasca = Fictional, imaginary town; the place where most of our stories take place. In the Aymara language it literally means the Refuge of the Snail.
Caranavi = Colopampa, Caranavi, Palos Blancos, Alto Beni are real tropical towns and places in the Bolivian Yungas, upper rainforest region.
La Paz = La Paz is one of Bolivia's main cities and presently the government site. The city of La Paz, one of the highest in the world located at almost 10,000 ft above sea level is only about one hour drive from the beginning of the Yungas upper rainforest region.
pagos = Pago is a Spanish regionalism used to mean a place zone, site, or geographic region.
Reforma Agraria = La Reforma Agraria (Agrarian Reform) was initiated after the significant revolution of April 9, 1952 . Its objective was a better ownership distribution of the Bolivian lands, ending this way with the abuse of baron landowners and with the virtual slavery peasants suffered. During the revolution many haciendas were destroyed and were partitioned among the peasants.
Todos Santos = The first day of November is the day of the dead. The following day is the feast of All Saints. Traditionally in the day of the dead one prays for dead relatives and offers them their favorite food and drinks and people invite them back to their homes. After the celebration, at midnight they are sent back to heaven so the next day they are celebrated together with all other saints. Somewhat similar traditions are practiced throughout Latin America.
tantaguaguas = T'antaguaga, derived from the Aymara native language; t'anta=bread; guagua=baby, creature. The term is used for seasonal bread figurines and dolls made in the shape of angels, babies, little animals as well as wild Indians, devils, gargoyles, etc. This bread is used as a special feature of the festivities and is given in exchange of prayers children and adults offer to one' relatives. The masks are multicolor and not edible. The bodies are usually glazed and decorated and are fully edible.
Pachamama = Mother Earth; in the native theogony the most important femenine deity.
chango = little boy, adolescent, puber. Changuito=diminutive of chango, little chango. Term used with this meaning mainly in Bolivia and Argentina. Not to be confused with the Mexican chango where it means a "monkey".
Potosí = Potosí y Santa Cruz are states and cities from Bolivia.
Santa Cruz = Potosí y Santa Cruz are states and cities from Bolivia.
cocales = Traditional coca plantations used for legitimate purposes are still legal in certain areas of the Bolivian region of the Yungas, in the upper rainforest.
chuchuhuasi = The bark of a medicinal tropical tree. Used by local curanderos to treat rheumatism. Also used to make a tasty powerful amber alcoholic drink.
chola = Regional term used to call the half-breeds with a heavier Indian component. A Bolivian mestizo boliviano; cholo a half-breed male; chola, a half breed female. Cholos generally generally also use a hybrid behavior, customs and attire, also mixing Western modern influence and traditional native garb and customs.
suspiro = Suspiro is a type of candy made for the celebration of All Saints day. It is somewhat like hardened meringue, soft and spongy; it easily liquefies itself upon contact with saliva. Suspiro also literally means a "sigh" in Spanish.
bizcochuelos = It is the traditional local delicacy made for the delight of the living and in memory of the dead in the Fiesta of All Saints. A type of spongy angel-cake with a surprisingly most pleasant distinctive different taste. It is traditionally made in the fiesta of Todos Santos celebrated in the Bolivian upper rainforest.
changuitos = little boy, adolescent, puber. Changuito=diminutive of chango, little chango. Term used with this meaning mainly in Bolivia and Argentina. Not to be confused with the Mexican chango where it means a "monkey".
jamachpeke = Jamashpeke/jamachp'ke=tapioca-like flour used in the region of the Bolivian Yungas.
maicillos = Maicillo is a type of cake made with corn, maize. They have the shape of little wheels, are brown, tasty and crumble very easily.
tambor de coca = (A coca) tambor=drum is a rectangular pack of coca leaves usually about 4x3 ft.
Maistro panadero = Master baker in charge of the pueblo ovens.
Imilla = little indian girl. Imillita=affectionate diminutive expression to call a little imilla Indial girl.
coquita = Coca is a term usually used for the dry leaf of the Erythroxylon coca, a plant found wild principally in the muntainous districts of Bolivia and cultivated in various sections of South America and the West Indies; (coca) term also used to call the plant itsel. Coca chewing is a traditional habit of Andean peasants. In Bolivia, it is used by peasants as some US people chew tobacco and some Orientals chew bejel. The average amount of coca leaves used by the peasants contains minute amounts of the alkaloid cocaine. Cocaine use is a different deplorable matter unfortunately introduced by foreigners, abused and illegally used in a clandestine way mainly in the Western World industrial regions.
llamitas = Llama is a South American Andean animal somewhat similar to a small furry camel without a hump. It is used as a beast of burden and as a source of wool, meat and milk.
aymará = Aymara=The native language of a South American Indian tribe living largely in Bolivia and Peru and believed to have been the builders of a great ancient culture, later supplanted by the Incas.
waca-wacas = Waca-wacas a local dance that is a jocose parody of a Spanish bullfight. Waca is a deformed term derived from vaca=cow.
kusillos = Kusillo is a local dance poking fun at the plantation crew-bosses of long ago. Fine wire threads are used in the distinctive masks used by the dancers who also carry whips in their hands.
auqui-auquis = A traditional dance that is a parody of the rich, upper class older White people. It is danced by people dressed as old people with difficulty to walk, bent-over and using walking wood canes.
guarapo = Drink made with sugar cane or by boiling pineapples and sugar. Given to children prior to its fermentation before it becomes a rum-like alcoholic beverage.